The IEEE and telecommunications industry standards for wireless data communications cover both the data link and physical layers.

Four common data communications standards that apply to wireless media are:

The figure highlights some of the differences between wireless media.

Note: Other wireless technologies such as cellular and satellite communications can also provide data network connectivity. However, these wireless technologies are out of scope for this chapter.

In each of the above examples, physical layer specifications are applied to areas that include:

Note: Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. Wi-Fi is used with certified products that belong to WLAN devices that are based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.